Tamboura began his career for Djoliba AC and on August 22, 2006, Tamboura signed a loan deal ending on November 30 with Helsingborgs IF. On November 23, 2006, the HIF board announced that Tamboura had signed a three-year-contract with the club.
On 28 January 2010 FC Metz signed the Malian midfielder from Swedish club Helsingborgs IF until June 2012. Tambura has won the fan-voted "player of the season" in each of his last three seasons, Helsingborgs twice and Metz once.
He was part of the Malian 2004 Olympic football team, who exited in the quarter finals, finishing top of group A, but losing to Italy in the next round.