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ADP-ribosylation is the addition of one or more ADP-ribose moieties to a protein. These reactions are involved in cell signaling and the control of many cell processes, including DNA repair and apoptosis.

ADP-ribosylation enzymes

One way this protein modification can be produced is by diphthamide ADP-ribosyltransferase enzymes, which transfer the ADP-ribose group from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD<sup>+</sup>) onto acceptors such as arginine, glutamic acid, or aspartic acid. In humans, one type of ADP-ribosyltransferases is <!--"Type" is subject; predicate does not agree with its complement.--> the NAD:arginine ADP-ribosyltransferases, which modify amino acid residues in proteins such as histones by adding a single ADP-ribose group.

Multiple groups of ADP-ribose moieties can also be transferred to proteins to form long branched chains, in a reaction called poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. This protein modification is carried out by the poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARPs), which are found in most eukaryotes, but not prokaryotes or yeast. The poly(ADP-ribose)...
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