Ahmad (Jalayirids)

Ahmad (Jalayirids)

Ahmad (Jalayirids)

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Sultan Ahmad was a Jalayirid ruler (1382-1410). He was the son of Shaikh Uvais.

Struggle With His Brothers

Ahmad came to power as a result of a plot against his brother Husain. In 1382 he departed from Ardabil, which he had been given control of, and took Tabriz; Husain was captured and executed. Ahmad's other brothers, Shaikh 'Ali and Bayazid opposed him; Husain's former amir, 'Adil Aqa, had Bayazid proclaimed sultan in Soltaniyeh, while Shaikh 'Ali prepared to leave Baghdad and march on Tabriz. To secure his position, Ahmad requested the assistance of the Black Sheep Turkmen. Shaikh 'Ali fell in battle against the Turkmen; within two years Ahmad was also able to neutralize Bayazid (see Bayazid for further details).

Conflict With Timur

In the spring of 1384 the Chagatai amir Timur attacked the Jalayirids. Although Sultan Ahmad was not captured, his subordinates in Soltaniyeh failed to defend the town and Timur took it with a minimum of resistance. Timur gave the town to 'Adil Aqa, who had defected to him, before retiring from the campaign. Ahmad then sent an army to retake Soltaniyeh, but 'Adil Aqa successfully defended it.

In the midst of Timur's absence, Sultan Ahmad had to deal with an invasion by Tokhtamysh, khan of the Golden Horde. Tokhtamysh's troops swept down into Azerbaijan, devastating the land, and Tabriz was sacked in around the end of 1385. This raid significantly weakened Ahmad's position; he consequently could not combat Timur when he returned in 1386....
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