(24 August 1899 – 22 May 1983) was a Belgian biologist
who shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
in 1974 with Christian de Duve
and George Emil Palade
. He studied engineering, and then medicine (at the University of Liège
, Belgium). During the winter of 1928-29 he worked in Berlin, first at the Institut für Krebsforschung, and then at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Biology
. In the summer of 1929 he joined the Rockefeller Institute. While working at Rockefeller University
in the 1930s and 1940s, he used the electron microscope
to make images of cells
which deepened the scientific understanding of cellular structure and function. He discovered the chloroplasts in the cell.In 1930, Claude discovered the process of cell fractionation
, which was groundbreaking in his time. The process consists of grinding up cells to break the membrane and release the cell's contents. Claude then filtered out the cell membranes and placed the remaining cell contents in a centrifuge
to separate them according to mass. He divided the centrifuged contents into fractions, each of a specific mass, and discovered that particular fractions were responsible for particular cell functions.
In 1949, he became Director of the Institut Jules Bordet
, Centre des Tumeurs de l'Université Libre de Bruxelles
of the Université Libre de Bruxelles
(ULB) in Brussels
where he would stay until 1970.
In 1970, together with George Palade
and Keith Porter
he was awarded the......