Alkaline phosphatase

Alkaline Phosphatase

Alkaline phosphatase

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Description:
Alkaline phosphatase (ALP, ALKP) () is a hydrolase enzyme responsible for removing phosphate groups from many types of molecules, including nucleotides, proteins, and alkaloids. The process of removing the phosphate group is called dephosphorylation. As the name suggests, alkaline phosphatases are most effective in an alkaline environment.It is sometimes used synonymously as basic phosphatase.

Bacterial

In bacteria, alkaline phosphatase is located in the periplasmic space, external to the cell membrane. Since this space is much more subject to environmental variation than the actual interior of the cell, bacterial alkaline phosphatase is comparatively resistant to inactivation, denaturation, and degradation, and also has a higher rate of activity. Although the actual purpose of the enzyme is still not fully understood, the simple hypothesis, that it is a means for the bacteria to generate free phosphate groups for uptake and use, is supported by the fact that alkaline phosphatase is usually produced by the bacteria only during phosphate starvation and not when phosphate is plentiful. However, other possibilities exist; for instance, the presence of phosphate groups usually prevents organic molecules from passing through the membrane, therefore dephosphorylating them may be important for bacterial uptake of organic compounds in the wild<ref...
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