AND gate

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Description:
The AND gate is a digital logic gate that implements logical conjunction - it behaves according to the truth table to the right. A HIGH output (1) results only if both the inputs to the AND gate are HIGH (1). If neither or only one input to the AND gate is HIGH, a LOW output results. In another sense, the function of AND effectively finds the minimum between two binary digits, just as the OR function finds the maximum. Therefore, the output is always 0 except when the inputs are two 1s.

Symbols

There are three symbols for AND gates: the American (ANSI or 'military') symbol and the IEC ('European' or 'rectangular') symbol, as well as the deprecated DIN symbol. For more information see Logic Gate Symbols.



The AND gate with inputs A and B and output C implements the logical expression <math>C = A cdot B</math>.

Implementations

An AND gate is usually designed using N-channel (pictured) or P-channel MOSFETs. The digital inputs a and b cause the output F to have the same result as the AND function.

Alternatives

If no specific AND gates are available, one can be made from NAND or NOR gates, because NAND and NOR gates are considered the "universal gates," Mano, M. Morris and Charles R. Kime. Logic and Computer Design Fundamentals, Third Edition. Prentice Hall, 2004. p. 73. meaning that they can be used to make all the others. The configuration shown on the very bottom shows how to use NAND gates to create the effect of an AND...
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