One of the largest churches is Sacre Coeur in Vientiane which was built in 1928 and renovated in 2004/2005.
The vicariate goes back to the Prefecture Apostolic of Vientiane and Luang-Prabang, which was created on June 14, 1938 by splitting of the northern part of the Vicariate Apostolic of Laos. On March 13, 1952 it was elevated to an apostolic vicariate, and renamed to simply Vientiane. The northern part around Luang Prabang was split off in 1963 and formed the Vicariate Apostolic of Luang Prabang.
Jean Khamsé Vithavong, O.M.I., since 1984, was coadjutor vicar apostolic 1982-1984