It was established in 1952, replacing the Atomic Energy Policy Committee. In 1981 parts of the Commission were split off to become part of CSIRO, the remainder continuing until 1987, when it was replaced by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO). The Commission head office was in Coogee, and its main facilities were at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment at Lucas Heights, established in 1958.
Highlights of the Commission's history included:
Major roles in the establishment of the IAEA and the system of international safeguards.
The construction of the HIFAR and MOATA research reactors at Lucas Heights.