( in English; Old Turkic
: Bey Ülgen
; also spelled Bai-Ulgen
, or Bay-Ülgen
) is a Turkic
creator-deity, usually distinct from Tengri
but sometimes identified with him in the same manner as Helios and Apollo
. His name is from Old Turkic bey
, "rich", and ülgen
, "magnificent". Ulgan is thought to be without a beginning and an end.
In Turkic and Mongolian mythology
, the birch tree, regarded as a cosmic axis between earth and sky, was regarded as sacred to him, as was the horse
(horse-sacrifice was a part of his worship). Ulgan symbolizes goodness, welfare, abundance, plenty of food, water, etc. Furthermore, he created earth, heaven and all living beings. In addition, he controls the atmosphere events and movements of stars. He creates land for people to live, humans' and animals' heads, and the rainbow. He was regarded as the patron god
and the source of their knowledge.
It is believed that Ulgan has been created from Tengri (Tengere Kayra Khan). He is the highest deity after Tengri. Sometimes, Ulgan is compared with Tengri and they are thought to be the same. In some sayings, Ulgan takes place of Tengri, but not completely.
Ulgan is the enemy of Erlik
who is the god of evil and darkness. Ulgen protects humankind against him.
Ulgan has seven sons, named “Karakuş, Karşıt, Pura Kan, Burça Kan, Yaşıl Kan, Er Kanım, Baktı Kan”, and nine daughters, named Akkızlar and... Read More