The Battle of Majorca
, also known as the Majorca Landings
, was an amphibious
landing early in the Spanish Civil War
aimed at driving the Nationalists
and reclaiming the island for the Republic
. After some initial tactical success, the expedition, commanded by Captain Alberto Bayo
, ended in failure when the Nationalists counterattacked with ground troops and massively superior air power
and drove the Republicans into the sea. So confident were the Republicans in their prediction of victory they optimistically called the operation "la reconquista de Mallorca"
- "the reconquest of Majorca".
Plans for a seaborne
attack on the Balearic Islands
seem to have surfaced independently in various Republican militia groups in the days following the joining of Ibiza
, and Majorca
Nationalist military rebellion. Already, on July 23, bomber squadrons struck Palma
, and on August 1, a Republican expeditionary force from Minorca
landed at Cabrera and resisted all efforts to dislodge it.
These actions, however, and in particular the Majorca landings, were never approved by the Madrid
government and had from the very beginning an air of confusion and improvisation. On August 2, Bayo assembled a column of Barcelona
militia on Minorca; the next day, the Republican air force dropped bombs on Palma once more. By August 6 logistical preparations, overseen by the Barcelona government and the council of Catalan militias......