Battle of Pagan

Battle Of Pagan

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Battle of Pagan

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The Battle of Pagan was fought in 1287 between Kublai Khan's Mongol, and their neighbors to the south, the Pagan Empire. The invasion ended the Pagan Empire, which disintegrated to several small kingdoms.


The battle was initiated by the Mongols, who sensed opportunity in the political turmoil caused by their successful 1283 invasion of the Pagan Empire in the Battle of Bhamo. After Bhamo, the Mongol army penetrated the Irrawaddy River valley and established garrisons there. The political turmoil of these events tempted Kublai Khan's grandson Esen-Temür who was stationed in Yunnan, to action. Temür led a large army down the Irrawaddy river valley and captured the capital city Pagan, also sending military parties across the country to ensure submission.

The Burmese king Narathihapate, who fled Pagan to Lower Burma, prior to the battle, and the Burmese defense collapsed. The king is remembered in Burmese history as Tayokpyemin (lit. the king who ran away from the Chinese). In Lower Burma, the king was promptly assassinated by one of his sons Thihathu of Prome.


The 250-year-old Pagan Empire now disintegrated. The kingdom was fractured into several small power centers as the Mongols did not fill the power vacuum in the searing Irrawaddy valley. The Mongol army instead stayed farther north in Tagaung (present-day northern Mandalay Region).

In central Burma, another son of Narathihapate, Kyawswa, was installed as king by dowager queen Saw. But Kyawswa...
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