Bcl-2-associated death promoter

Bcl-2-Associated Death Promoter

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Bcl-2-associated death promoter

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Description:
The Bcl-2-associated death promoter (BAD) protein is a pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 gene family which is involved in initiating apoptosis. BAD is a member of the BH3-only family, a subfamily of the Bcl-2 family. It does not contain a C-terminal transmembrane domain for outer mitochondrial membrane and nuclear envelope targeting, unlike most other members of the Bcl-2 family. After activation, it is able to form a heterodimer with anti-apoptotic proteins and prevent them from stopping apoptosis.

Mechanism of Action

Bax/Bak are believed to initiate apoptosis by forming a pore in the mitochondrial outer membrane that allows cytochrome c to escape into the cytoplasm and activate the pro-apoptotic caspase cascade. The anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL proteins inhibit cytochrome c release through the mitochondrial pore and also inhibit activation of the cytoplasmic caspase cascade by cytochrome c.

Dephosphorylated BAD forms a heterodimer with Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, inactivating them and thus allowing Bax/Bak-triggered apoptosis. When BAD is phosphorylated by Akt/protein kinase B (triggered by PIP<sub>3</sub>), it forms the BAD-(14-3-3)protein homodimer. This leaves Bcl-2 free to inhibit Bax-triggered apoptosis.E.J.M. (2001) The Biochemistry of Cell Signalling, pp....
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