- Common names: Alcatrazes lancehead.
Bothrops alcatraz is a venomous pitviper species found only on an island off the coast of southeastern Brazil. No subspecies are currently recognized.
Grows to a maximum size of 46.2/50.5 cm for males/females. Its small size and relatively large eyes are considered paedomorphic (juvenile) characteristics.
Found only on Ilha Alcatrazes, 35 km off the coast of São Paulo
, southeastern Brazil
. This island, which has a total area of only 1.35 km², is one of four islands than make up the Alcatrazes Archipelago. The type locality
given is therefore the same: "Alcatrazes Island, (24°06'S, 45°42'W), São Sebastião, São Paulo, Brazil."
Described as "low Atlantic Forest vegetation." The highest point on island is 266 m.
This species is classified as critical (CRU) on the IUCN
Red List for the following criteria: CR B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii) (v3.1 (2001). This means that the geographic range
is estimated to be less than 100 km², that this area is severely fragmented or known to exist at only a single location, and that a continuing decline has been observed, inferred or projected for the area, extent and/or quality of the habitat. Furthermore, the area of occupancy
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