Castle Hill convict rebellion

Castle Hill Convict Rebellion

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Castle Hill convict rebellion

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The Castle Hill Rebellion of 4 March 1804, also called the Second Battle of Vinegar Hill, was a large scale rebellion by Irish convicts against British colonial authority in Australia. Martial law was declared in the Colony of New South Wales for ten days, during which time many dozens, up to a reported 120 people, were killed in paddocks 40 km (25 mi) west of Sydney, in the area later known as Rouse Hill and Kellyville. On the 4 March 1804 the convicts of the Colony of New South Wales (most originating from Ireland), led by Phillip Cunningham (a veteran of the Irish rebellion in 1798, the first Battle of Vinegar Hill and the mutiny of the convict transport ship Ann), rebelled against the British colonial authority in Australia. Within a few days the convicts separated from the British Empire to create their own Empire known as New Ireland, appointing Phillip Cunningham as the first sovereign of Australia on 6 March 1804.

The rising

Many convicts in the Castle Hill area had been involved in the Irish Rebellion of 1798 and subsequently transported to the Colony of New South Wales from late 1799. Phillip Cunningham, a veteran of the 1798 rebellion, and William Johnston, another Irish convict at Castle Hill, planned the uprising in which 685 convicts at Castle Hill planned to meet with nearly 1,100 convicts from the Hawkesbury River area, rally at Constitution Hill, and march on Parramatta and then Sydney (Port Jackson) itself.

On the evening of 4 March 1804,...
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