The Federal Republic of Germany
guarantees freedom of speech
, and opinion to its citizens as per Article 5 of the constitution. Despite this, censorship
of various materials has taken place since the Allied occupation after World War II
and continues to take place in Germany in various forms due to a limiting provision in Article 5, Paragraph 2 of the constitution. According to the Reporters Without Borders
Press Freedom Index, Germany is currently ranked 17th in the world in terms of press freedom.
During the Allied occupation of Germany
, the media was controlled by the occupying forces. The policy rationales differed among the occupying powers, but there was resentment in literary and journalistic circles in many parts of the country. Undesired publishing efforts were unilaterally blocked by the occupying forces.
Since the publication of the German Grundgesetz
, there have been two kinds of censored media in Germany. The first is material that is considered offensive or indecent; such media are placed on the "Index" and restricted in their publication, and distribution to minors is illegal. The second is material that is considered anti-constitutional, dangerous to the state. The underlying concept is "streitbare Demokratie
" (self-defending democracy
) that legally hinders the rise of all anti-constitutional and thus undemocratic movements. The media concerned are banned outright, with criminal penalties for infringements.... Read More