Charter of Carnaro

Charter Of Carnaro

Charter of Carnaro

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The Charter of Carnaro (Carta del Carnaro in Italian) was the constitution of the Italian Regency of Carnaro, a short-lived government in Fiume (Rijeka), proclaimed by Gabriele D'Annunzio on 8 September 1920. Following the Treaty of Rapallo the regime of D'Annunzio was ousted by Italian military forces at Christmas 1920, and by 31 December the Free State of Fiume had been established. Misleadingly the Charter of Carnaro is sometimes also referred to as the "Constitution for the free state of Fiume" even if it has no relation to the Free State. <!--Note the difference in capitalization between "free state" and "Free State"!-->

The constitution combined anarchist, proto-fascist, and democratic republican ideas. D'Annunzio is often seen as a precursor of the ideals and techniques of Italian fascism. His own explicit political ideals emerged in Fiume when he coauthored with syndicalist Alceste De Ambris. De Ambris provided the legal and political framework, to which D'Annunzio added his skills as a poet. The charter is notorious for designating "music" to be the fundamental principle of the state.


The constitution established a corporatist state, with nine corporations to represent the different sectors of the economy, where membership was mandatory, plus a tenth corporation devised by D'Annunzio, to represent the "superior individuals" (e.g. poets, "heroes" and "supermen"). The other nine...
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