refers to the biological
and emotional changes that occur in human beings between birth and the end of adolescence
, as the individual progresses from dependency to increasing autonomy
. Because these developmental changes may be strongly influenced by genetic factors and events during prenatal life, genetics and prenatal development are usually included as part of the study of child development. Related terms include developmental psychology
, referring to development throughout the lifespan, and pediatrics
, the branch of medicine relating to the care of children. Developmental change may occur as a result of genetically-controlled processes known as maturation, or as a result of environmental factors and learning, but most commonly involves an interaction between the two. It may also occur as a result of human nature and our ability to learn from our environment. Human beings have a keen sense to adapt to their surroundings and this is what child development encompasses.
There are various definitions of periods in a child's development, since each period is a continuum with individual differences regarding start and ending.
Some age-related development periods and examples of defined intervals are: newborn
(ages 0–1 month); infant
(ages 1 month – 1 year); toddler
(ages 1–3 years); preschooler
(ages 4–6years); school-aged child
(ages 6–13 years); adolescent
(ages 13–20).However,... Read More