Combat Organization of the Polish Socialist Party

Combat Organization Of The Polish Socialist Party

Combat Organization of the Polish Socialist Party

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The Combat Organization of the Polish Socialist Party (, abbreviated OBPPS), also translated as Fighting Organization of the Polish Socialist Party; also known as bojówki (paramilitary units); Organizacja Spiskowo-Bojowa PPS (PPS Underground-Combat Organization); Koła Bojowe Samoobrony Robotniczej (Workers' Self-Defense Combat Circles) and Koła Techniczno-Bojowe (Combat-Technical Circles), was an illegal Polish guerrilla organization founded in 1904 by Józef Piłsudski.

Its operations reached their zenith about 1904-1908, when it numbered over 2,000 members, including over 700 paramilitary personnel, and carried out over 2,500 operations. . OBPPS as described on the official website of the modern Polish Socialist Party. Last accessed on 13 November 2006. According to Leon Wasilewski, the organization had over 5,000 members at the height of its power. Afterwards it declined and was dissolved in 1911. Its goal was to create an armed resistance movement against the Imperial Russian authorities in partitioned Poland.


The first action of the Organizacja Bojowa took place soon after the PPS started to organize an increasing number of demonstrations (mostly in Warsaw). On October 28, 1904, Russian Cossack cavalry trampled the participants in one of the demonstrations; in revenge, on November 13 the 'Bojówki' opened fire on the Russian police and...
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