Constitution of Hungary

Constitution Of Hungary

Constitution of Hungary

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The Constitution of the Republic of Hungary (A Magyar Köztársaság Alkotmánya), its fundamental law, was adopted on 20 August 1949, and heavily amended on 23 October 1989. It is Hungary's first and only permanent written constitution; the country is the only former Eastern Bloc nation that did not adopt an entirely new constitution after the fall of Communism. In 2011, a new constitution, styled Magyarország Alaptörvénye (Fundamental Law of Hungary), was passed, the first to be adopted within a democratic framework and following free elections. It is scheduled to enter into force on January 1, 2012.

Background

For centuries, the Hungarian constitution was unwritten, based upon customary law. There was no civil code either; lawyers worked with the Corpus Iuris Hungarici. Among the laws that acquired constitutional force were a series of liberal statutes enacted during the 1848 Revolution; Statute XII of 1867 (enacting the Ausgleich); and further guarantees for constitutionalism, such as Statute IV of 1869, separating the executive and the judiciary; or the post-1870 statutes regulating local self-government and state administration.

Following the advent of the Hungarian Soviet Republic, the Revolutionary Governing Council adopted a Provisional Constitution on 2 April 1919, providing for a...
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