Crimean Khanate

Crimean Khanate

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Crimean Khanate

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Crimean Khanate, or Khanate of Crimea (; - Krymskoye khanstvo; - Kryms'ke khanstvo; ; ), was a state ruled by Crimean Tatars from 1441 to 1783. Its native name was (Ottoman Turkish and Arabic :خانية القرم). Its khans were the patrilineal descendants of Toqa Temür, the thirteenth son of Jochi and grandson of Genghis Khan. This khanate was by far the longest-lived of the Turkic khanates that succeeded the empire of the Golden Horde.



The Crimean Khanate was founded when certain clans of the Golden Horde Empire ceased their nomadic life in the Desht-i Kipchak (Kypchak Steppes of today's Ukraine and South Russia) and decided to make Crimea their yurt (homeland), which at that time had been an ulus (district) of the Golden Horde since 1239, with its capital at Qirim (Staryi Krym). The local separatists invited a Genghisid contender for the Golden Horde throne, Hacı Giray, to be their khan. Hacı Giray accepted their invitation and traveled from exile in Lithuania. He warred for independence against the Horde from 1420 to 1441, in the end achieving success. But Hacı Giray then had to fight off internal rivals before he could ascend the throne of the khanate in 1449, after which he moved its capital to Qırq Yer (today part of Bahçeseray). The khanate included the Crimean peninsula (except the south and southwest coast and ports, controlled by the Republic of Genoa) and the steppes of modern...
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