Darwinian Happiness: Evolution As a Guide for Living and Understanding Human Behavior
, ISBN 0-87850-159-2, is a 2002 book by the Norwegian biologist Bjørn Grinde
from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health
. He argues that human emotions
find their cause in evolution
and offers ways by which we can use this for our advantage.
More specifically, mammals
are equipped with a nerve system that enables them to distinguish not only between pleasant and unpleasant sensations, but positive and negative experiences in general. While the biological term fitness
refers to the capacity to create offspring, happiness
(or quality of life
) is, at least in a biological perspective, a question of the qualities of the experiences
our nervous system
In order to improve these experiences there are two main principles to consider:
- To utilize the rewarding sensations the brain is designed to offer in a way that gives optimal long-term benefits; and, similarly, to avoid punishing sensations.
- To avoid stress and maladaptive ways of living in order to have a healthy mind with optimal potential for positive experiences.
As to the first principle, humans may actually have been equipped with more powerful positive and negative sensations, compared to other mammals
, due to our capacity for free will
. That is, evolution
might tend to add stronger incentives for behavior benefiting the genes
in an individual with a powerful free will; as otherwise, the free will could easily result in... Read More