The league was formed in 1951 with 14 clubs. The membership fluctuated between 13 and 16 clubs, and was absorbed in 1963 into the Athenian League.
Due to the severe winter of 1962-63, the final league season had to be abandoned and an emergency competition played where the teams were split into two groups, played each other only once and the two champions,Edmonton and Hertford Town met in a two-legged final where the former won by an aggregate score of 5-2. At the end of this season the Delphian League closed with the majority of its clubs joining the Athenian League to create its new second division.
Most of the Delphian League clubs competed in the FA Cup and the FA Amateur Cup, but the only one to reach the first round proper of the FA Cup was Aylesbury United in the league's inaugural season, where they lost to Watford. The best performance in the Amateur Cup was that of Wokingham Town in 1957-58 who reached the Quarter Finals.