, a dependent clause
(also subordinate clause
) is a clause
that is used in conjunction with an independent clause
and that augments it with additional information. Dependent clauses cannot stand alone as a sentence
; instead, they modify the independent clause of a sentence or serve as a component of it. Some grammarians use the term subordinate clause
as a synonym for dependent clause,
but in some grammars subordinate clause
refers only to adverbial dependent clauses.
In Indo-European languages
, a dependent clause usually begins with a dependent word. One kind of dependent word is a subordinating conjunction
. Subordinating conjunctions are used to begin dependent clauses known as adverbial clauses
, which act like adverbs
. In the following examples, the adverbial clauses are bold and the subordinating conjunctions are italicized:
- Wherever she goes, she leaves a piece of luggage behind.
- (The adverbial clause wherever she goes modifies the verb leaves.)
- Bob enjoyed the movie more than I did.
- (The adverbial clause than I did modifies the adverb more.)
Another type of dependent word is the relative pronoun
. Relative pronouns begin dependent clauses known as relative clauses
. These can either be adjective clauses, which act like adjectives
, or noun clauses, which act like nouns
. In the following examples, the dependent clauses are bold and the relative pronouns are italicized:
- The only one of the seven dwarfs who does not have a beard'......