Differences between the Slovak and Czech languages
Linguistically, the Czech and Slovak languages form a language continuum, eastern Slovak dialects then blend into the Rusyn language. Czech exists in two forms (excluding the four Moravian and two Silesian dialects): literary Czech and colloquial Czech. The standard Slovak language is closer to literary Czech, especially in phonology and morphology. The differences between parts of the vocabulary of some Slovak dialects are rather big, comparable to the differences between standard Slovak and Czech. The description below sums the main differences between standard Slovak and Czech.
Slovak graphemes that do not exist in the Czech language are ä, ľ, ĺ, ŕ, ô, ia, ie, iu, dz, dž (see Pronunciation). Czech graphemes that do not exist in the Slovak language are: ě, ř and ů.
Slovak has the following phonemes which Czech does not have: , , , (this one only in higher-style standard Slovak, or some dialects), and the diphthongs , , , ; and on the contrary, Czech has .
Czech uses peculiar pitch contour, not present in Slovak (or Moravian dialects).
Slovak, unlike Czech, uses palatalization more frequently (that is, is phonetically "softer"), but there are some exceptions (SK batoh, dekan; CZ baťoh, děkan ).
The phonetic assimilation and a kind of "liaison" are much stronger in the Slovak language