**Direct Simulation Monte Carlo** (

**DSMC**) method uses probabilistic (

Monte Carlo)

simulation to solve the

Boltzmann equation for finite

Knudsen number fluid flows.

The DSMC method was proposed by Prof. Graeme BirdG. A. Bird, 'Approach to translational equilbrium in a rigid sphere gas',

*Phys. Fluids*,

**6**, p1518 (1963).G. A. Bird,

*Molecular Gas Dynamics*, Clarendon, Oxford (1976)G. A. Bird,

*Molecular Gas Dynamics and the Direct Simulation of Gas Flows*, Claredon, Oxford (1994), Emeritus Professor of Aeronautics, University of Sydney. DSMC is a numerical method for modeling rarefied gas flows, in which the

mean free path of a molecule is of the same order (or greater) than a representative physical length scale (i.e. the

Knudsen number Kn is greater than 1). In supersonic and hypersonic flows rarefaction is characterized by Tsein's parameter, which is equivalent to the product of Knudsen number and Mach number (KnM) or M<math>^2</math>/Re, where Re is the Reynolds number. H. S. Tsein, 1948 â€˜Superaerodynamics, mechanics of rarefied gasesâ€™

*J. Aerospace Sci*,

**13**, p342, 1946.M. N. Macrossan,. In: M. S. Ivanov and A. K. Rebrov,

*25th International Symposium on Rarefied Gas Dynamics*, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, p.759 (2007). In these rarefied flows, the

Navier-Stokes equations can be inaccurate. The DSMC method has been extended to model...

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