Doctor of Civil Law
is a degree offered by some universities, such as the University of Oxford
, instead of the more common Doctor of Laws
At Oxford, the degree of Doctor of Civil Law by Diploma is customarily conferred on foreign Heads of State
, as well as on the Chancellor of the University
. (The British Sovereign
is unable to receive university degrees, since these would, theoretically, place her under the jurisdiction of the Chancellor of the university. Prior to her accession, the present Queen
did accept several honorary degrees, including an Oxford DCL in 1948).See 'Honorary Degrees', in Ronald Allison and Sarah Riddell, eds., The Royal Encyclopedia
(London; Basingstoke: Macmillan
, 1991), p. 264.
The degree is a higher doctorate usually awarded on the basis of exceptionally insightful and distinctive publications that contain significant and original contributions to the study of law or politics in general. The degree of Doctor of Canon Law
was replaced by the DCL after the Reformation
The DCL is senior to all degrees save the Doctor of Divinity
which was traditionally the highest degree bestowed by the Universities.
In some other universities, the DCL is an honorary degree
The following other higher institutions also grant DCL: