East Caicos has an area of 90.6 km² within the high water mark, and of 182.0 km² within the shoreline. The difference between the two values is not accounted for as land area. On East Caicos is 48 metre high Flamingo Hill, highest point in the Turks and Caicos Islands.
The island has been uninhabited since the early 1900s, when much of it was a sisal plantation. The former settlement, Jacksonville, was located at the northern tip of the island, where the ruins can still be seen.
East Caicos belongs to the South Caicos and East Caicos District.