East Germanic strong verb

East Germanic Strong Verb

East Germanic strong verb

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See also the articles West Germanic strong verb and Germanic verb.


The Indo-European vowel-alternations could be as follows:

  • ei — oi — i
  • eu — ou — u
  • e — o — null

These are all the same, being an alternation between e - o - null with various modifications. Another type of ablaut was as follows:

  • o — ō — a

Which is descended from:

  • eh<sub>3</sub> - oh<sub>3</sub> - h<sub>3</sub>

Where h<sub>3</sub> is a laryngeal that "colors" a preceding vowel in different ways. The important point is that all these classes are one and the same from an Pre-Proto-Indo-European point of view (that is, before the vowel coloring took place).


In Germanic, these became the following classes:

  • ī &mdash; ai &mdash; i
  • eu &mdash; au &mdash; u/o
  • e/i &mdash; a &mdash; u/o
  • a &mdash; ō &mdash; a

In the last class there was also a lengthened grade with ē

In Gothic we find these forms:

  • dreiban (ei = ī) &mdash; draif (3sing) &mdash; dribun (3pl) &mdash; dribans (past participle)
  • biudan &mdash; bauþ &mdash; budun &mdash; budans
  • hilpan (from *helpan) &mdash; halp &mdash; hulpun &mdash; hulpans
  • qiman (from *qeman) &mdash; qam &mdash; qemun (e = ē) &mdash; qumans
  • faran &mdash; for (o = ō) &mdash; forun (o = ō) &mdash;...
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