Virginia sent Carrington as a delegate to the Continental Congress from 1786 to 1788. George Washington appointed Carrington as the first U.S. Marshal for Virginia, a position he held from 1789 to 1791. He later served as foreman of the jury when Aaron Burr was tried for treason in 1807. He was also mayor of Richmond for two terms in 1807-1808 and 1809-1810.