) is a United States
military concept which emerged during the 1991 Gulf War
for the planning and conduct of operations combining military and non-military methods to achieve a particular effect. The doctrine was developed to take advantage of advancements in weaponry and tactics, from an emerging understanding that attacking a second-order target may have first order consequences for a variety of objectives, wherein the Commander's intent
can be satisfied with a minimum of collateral damage or risk to his own forces.
EBO has been an emerging concept, with multiple views on what it meant and how it could be implemented. Most notably, military scientists at the Air Force Research Lab
, the Army Research Lab
engaged in research to develop automated tools to annotate options and recommend courses of action. This is hard science and tools are slow to be implemented. For air forces, it supported the ability for a single aircraft to attack multiple targets, unlike tactics of previous wars, which used multiple aircraft to attack single targets, usually to create destruction without thought of later re-use by allied forces or friendly civilians.
EBO concepts emphasise the importance of technological sophistication in the Information Age
, arguing that casualties can be avoided on both sides by taking advantage of the technological advances made since the end of the Cold War - for example, by... Read More