The Egyptian Revolution of 1952 (), also known as the July 23 Revolution, began on July 23, 1952, with a military coup d'état by a group of young army officers who named themselves "The Free Officers Movement". The revolution was initially aimed at overthrowing King Farouk I. However, the movement had more political ambitions and soon moved to abolish the constitutional monarchy and establish a republic. The success of the revolution inspired numerous Arab and African countries to remove pro-Western and specifically pro-British Empire and pro-French Empire monarchies and potentates.
Germany successfully agitated numerous anti-British movements of various degrees of Islamic and secular political ideologies in the run-up to World War II. Coordinated by German intelligence and nurtured by exposure to Liberalism and Nationalism and renewed Jihadism, these groups coalesced into the Muslim Brotherhood, the Baath Party, and other reformist and revolutionary groups during the inter-war years before gaining substantial ideological, political, psychological, and logistical support from the Axis powers. After World War II these associated elements received moral and sometimes logistical support from the United States and the Soviet Union who were both opposed to continuing the European Colonial Empires.