Electron beam lithography
(often abbreviated as e-beam lithography
) is the practice of emitting a beam of electrons
in a patterned fashion across a surface covered with a film (called the resist
), ("exposing" the resist) and of selectively removing either exposed or non-exposed regions of the resist ("developing"). The purpose, as with photolithography
, is to create very small structures in the resist that can subsequently be transferred to the substrate material, often by etching. It was developed for manufacturing integrated circuits
, and is also used for creating nanotechnology
The primary advantage of electron beam lithography is that it is one of the ways to beat the diffraction limit
of light and make features in the nanometer
regime. This form of maskless lithography
has found wide usage in photomask
-making used in photolithography
, low-volume production of semiconductor components, and research & development.
The key limitation of electron beam lithography is throughput, i.e., the very long time it takes to expose an entire silicon wafer or glass substrate. A long exposure time leaves the user vulnerable to beam drift or instability which may occur during the exposure. Also, the turn-around time for reworking or re-design is lengthened unnecessarily if the pattern is not being changed the second time.
Electron beam lithography systems
Electron beam lithography systems used in... Read More