European squid

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The European squid (Loligo vulgaris) is a large squid belonging to the family Loliginidae. It occurs abundantly in coastal waters from the North Sea to at least the west coast of Africa. This species lives from sea level to depths of . Its mantle is up to long. It is the only species in the subgenus Loligo. There are two subspecies of this squid: the nominate L. v. vulgaris, and the Cape Hope Squid, L. v. reynaudi.

The species is extensively exploited by commercial fisheries. Natural predators feeding on the Cape Hope squid, Loligo vulgaris reynaudi, during the spawning period include short-tail stingray, diamond ray, spotted ragged-tooth shark, smooth-hound shark, cape fur seal, cat shark, and numerous species of fish. The most common of these along the South African coast is the short-tail stingray, which feeds on the adult squid and their orange egg clusters.

<gallery>File:Loligo vulgaris eggs.jpg|Egg massFile:Loligo vulgaris embryo2.jpg|EmbryoFile:Loligo vulgaris embryo.jpg|EmbryoFile:Loligo vulgaris (juvenile - ventral).jpg|juvenile</gallery>

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(Loligo vulgaris reynaudi) (Loligo vulgaris vulgaris)

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