Federalism in Iraq

Federalism In Iraq

Federalism in Iraq

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The Constitution of Iraq that was adopted in 2005 defined Iraq for the first time as a federal country.


After the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in 1919, Iraq became a League of Nations mandate under British control. Shaikh Mahmud Barzanji led a Kurdish revolt against the British and established in 1922 an independent Kingdom of Kurdistan in northern Iraq. In 1924 the British defeated Mahmud, and Kurdistan was incorporated into the Kingdom of Iraq. However, Kurdish leaders continued to press for independence or autonomy, including with the Barzani Revolt in 1961. In 1970 the Iraqi government agreed to create the Kurdish Autonomous Region covering three provinces of northern Iraq.

After the end of the Persian Gulf War in 1991 the Kurdish region rose up against President Saddam Hussein and gained de facto independence under the protection of a no fly zone. After the invasion of Iraq in 2003, the Transitional Administrative Law (TAL) recognised the existing regional government and defined Iraq for the first time as a federal country. The TAL also allowed governorates outside Kurdistan to form a Region, except for Baghdad Governorate, subject to approval by the Iraqi Interim Government and the population of the new region in a referendum.


Federalism Law

Article 118 of the provided that no new region may be created before the Iraqi National Assembly has passed a law which provides the procedures for forming the region. was passed in October 2006 after...
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