(also known as a hold
, colloquially a birdseye
, or as a grand pause
when placed on a note or a rest
) is an element of musical notation
indicating that the note
should be sustained for longer than its note value
would indicate. Exactly how much longer it is held is up to the discretion of the performer or conductor, but twice as long is not unusual. It is usually printed above, but occasionally below (upside down), the note that is to be held longer. Occasionally holds are also printed above rests or barlines, indicating a pause of indefinite duration.
This symbol appears as early as the 15th century, and is quite common in the works of Dufay
A fermata can occur at the end of a piece (or movement), or it can occur in the middle of a piece, and be followed by either a brief rest or more notes.Brock McElheran, Chapter XVII, "Fermatas" Conducting Technique
. New York: Oxford University Press (1989): 85. The author classifies them into three types: a) fermatas followed by uninterrrupted sound, b) fermatas followed "by a short period of silence," and c) fermatas "followed by a long period of silence." After this classification, the author gives detailed advice for conducting each of these types.
arrangements by Johann Sebastian Bach
and other composers of the Baroque
, the fermata often only signifies the end of a phrase, where a breath is to be taken. In a few organ
compositions, the fermatas... Read More