Ferromagnetic resonance

Ferromagnetic Resonance

Ferromagnetic resonance

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Ferromagnetic resonance, or FMR, is a spectroscopic technique to probe the magnetization of ferromagnetic materials. It is a standard tool for probing spin waves and spin dynamics. FMR is very broadly similar to electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and also somewhat similar to nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) except that FMR probes the sample magnetization resulting from the magnetic moments of dipolar-coupled but unpaired electrons whereas NMR probes the magnetic moment of atomic nuclei screened by the atomic or molecular orbitals surrounding such nuclei of non-zero nuclear spin.


Ferromagnetic resonance was unknowingly discovered by V. K. Arkad'yev when he observed the absorption of UHF radiation by ferromagnetic materials in 1911. A qualitative explanation of FMR along with an explanation of the results from Arkad'yev was offered up by Ya. G. Dorfman in 1923 when he suggested that the optical transitions due to Zeeman splitting could provide a way to study ferromagnetic structure.


FMR arises from the precessional motion of the (usually quite large) magnetization <math>scriptstylevec</math> of a ferromagnetic material in an external magnetic field <math>scriptstylevec</math>. The magnetic field exerts a torque on the sample magnetization which causes the magnetic moments in the sample to precess. The precession frequency of the magnetization depends on the orientation of the material, the strength of the magnetic...
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