First declension

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The first declension is a category of mostly feminine nouns in Latin and Ancient Greek with the defining feature of a long ā (either analysed as a part of the stem or case-ending). In Greek grammar, it is also called the alpha declension, since its forms have the letter α, at least in the plural.

In Latin and Greek grammar, the first declension is analyzed as a thematic declension. But its lack of a Proto-Indo-European thematic vowel (o or e) and of any nominative singular ending (ordinarily -s or -os) don't neatly place it within either of the Proto-Indo-European nominal categories, thematic and athematic. Therefore, it's assumed to be a newer formation: a suffix based on the neuter plural ending *-(e)h₂ forming a collective noun.


Latin nouns and adjectives

Latin first declension has only one set of endings for both feminine and masculine nouns.

The very small native masculine group includes only a few occupation nouns and nouns imported from the Greek masculine first declension.

The same endings are used for the feminine gender of Latin adjectives.

Ancient Greek

Greek nouns

Greek first declension has two basic classes of feminine endings and one...
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