Fort Bowie was established in 1862 after a series of engagements between the U.S. Military and the ChiricahuaApaches. The most violent of which was the Battle of Apache Pass. The fort was named in honor of ColonelGeorge Washington Bowie commander of the 5th California Infantry who first established the fort. The first Fort Bowie resembled more of a temporary camp than a permanent army post. In 1868, a second, more substantial Fort Bowie was built which included adobe barracks, houses, corrals, a trading post, and a hospital. The second Fort Bowie was built on a plateau about 300 yards to the southeast of the first site. For more than 30 years Fort Bowie and Apache Pass were the focal point of military operations eventually culminating in the surrender of Geronimo in 1886 and the banishment of the Chiricahuas to Florida and Alabama. The fort was abandoned in 1894.