Forty-second Amendment of the Constitution of India

Forty-Second Amendment Of The Constitution Of India

Forty-second Amendment of the Constitution of India

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The Forty-second Amendment of the Constitution of India, enacted in 1976, attempted to reduce the power of the Indian Supreme Court and High Court to pronounce upon the constitutional validity of laws. It also declared India to be a socialist and secular republic, and as securing fraternity assuring the unity "and integrity" of the Nation, by adding these words to the Preamble of the Constitution of India. It laid down the Fundamental Duties of Indian citizens to the nation. This amendment brought about the most widespread changes to the Constitution till then, and is often called a "mini-Constitution".

The full title of the law was the Constitution (Forty-second Amendment) Act, 1976. It was passed by the Indian parliament on 2 November 1976, during the Emergency (1975 - 1977), brought by the Congress government headed by Indira Gandhi. The Janta Party Government, which came to power in 1977 brought about 43rd and 44th Amendments to restore the pre-1976 position to some extent.

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