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In chemical thermodynamics, the fugacity (<math>f</math>) of a real gas is an effective pressure which replaces the true mechanical pressure in accurate chemical equilibrium calculations. It is equal to the pressure of an ideal gas which has the same chemical potential as the real gas. For example, nitrogen gas (N<sub>2</sub>) at 0°C and a pressure of 100 atm has a fugacity of 97.03 atm. This means that the chemical potential of real nitrogen at a pressure of 100 atm has the value which ideal nitrogen would have at a pressure of 97.03 atm.

Fugacities are determined experimentally or estimated for various models such as a Van der Waals gas that are closer to reality than an ideal gas. The ideal gas pressure and fugacity are related through the dimensionless fugacity coefficient <math> phi ,</math>.

<math> phi = f/P ,</math>

For nitrogen at 100 atm, the fugacity coefficient is 97.03 atm / 100 atm = 0.9703. For an ideal gas, fugacity and pressure are equal so <math> phi ,</math> is 1.

The fugacity is closely related to the thermodynamic activity. For a gas, the activity is simply the fugacity divided by a reference pressure to give a dimensionless quantity. This reference pressure is called the standard state and normally chosen as 1 atmosphere or 1 bar, Again using...
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