was a fusion of Roman
religious forms and modes of worship with Gaulish
deities from Celtic polytheism
. It was a selective acculturation.
In some cases, Gaulish deity names were used as epithets for Roman deities, as with Lenus Mars
or Jupiter Poeninus
. In other cases, Roman gods were given Gaulish female partners – for example, Mercury
was paired with Rosmerta
was partnered with Apollo
. In at least one case – that of the equine goddess Epona
– a native Celtic goddess was also adopted by Romans.
Eastern mystery religion
penetrated Gaul early on. These included the cults of Orpheus
, and Isis
The imperial cult
, centred primarily on the numen
, came to play a prominent role in public religion in Gaul, most dramatically at the pan-Gaulish ceremony venerating Rome and Augustus at the Condate Altar near Lugdunum
on 1 August.
Generally Roman worship practices such as offerings of incense and animal sacrifice, dedicatory inscriptions, and naturalistic statuary depicting deities in anthropomorphic form were combined with specific Gaulish practices such as circumambulation
around a temple. This gave rise to a characteristic Gallo-Roman fanum
, identifiable in archaeology from its concentric shape.
- Burnand, Y. (1999). "Notes sur le vocabulaire épigraphique de la représentation de la divinité en Gaule romaine" in Signa deorum : L'iconographie divine en Gaule romaine.......