is a principle of isolating functional sections of electrical systems
, thus preventing the movement of charge
-carrying particles from one section to another, i.e. there is no electric current
directly from one section to the next. Energy or information can still be exchanged between the sections by other means, e.g. capacitance
or electromagnetic waves, or by optical, acoustic or mechanical means.
Galvanic isolation is used in situations where two or more electric circuits must communicate, but their grounds
may be at different potentials
. It is an effective method of breaking ground loops
by preventing unwanted current from flowing between two units sharing a ground conductor
.Galvanic isolation is also used for safety
considerations, preventing accidental current from reaching the ground (the building floor) through a person's body.