(, Gaṅgeśa Upādhyāya
) (late 12th century) was an Indian mathematician
from the kingdom
. He established the Navya-Nyāya
("New Logic") school. His Tattvacintāmaṇi
(The Jewel of Thought on the Nature of Things) also known as Pramāṇacintāmaṇi
(The Jewel of Thought on the Means of Valid Knowledge) is the basic text for all later developments. The logicians
of this school were primarily interested in defining their terms and concepts related to non-binary logical categories.
Gengesha was born at Karion village on the banks of the river Kamala, 19 km south-east of Darbhanga
in a Brahman
family. According to tradition, he was illiterate in his early years but later he acquired the knowledge of logic as a boon from the goddess Kali
.Vidyabhusana, Satis Chandra (1920, reprint 2006). A History of Indian logic: Ancient, Mediaeval, and Modern Schools
, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-0565-8, pp.405-6 His son Vardhamana Upadhyaya was also a noted philosopher of the Nyaya school.
The text is divided into four khaṇḍa
s (books): Pratyakṣakhaṇḍa
(book on perception), Anumānakhaṇḍa
(book on inference), Upamānakhaṇḍa
(book on comparison) and Śabdakhaṇḍa
(book on verbal testimony). The first book opens with a salutation to Shiva
.Vidyabhusana, Satis Chandra (1920, reprint 2006). A History of Indian logic: Ancient, Mediaeval, and......