The Government of India Act 1919
(9 & 10 Geo. 5 c. 101) was an Act
of the Parliament of the United Kingdom
. It was passed to expand participation of Indians in the government of India
. The Act embodied the reforms recommended in the report of the Secretary of State for India
, Edwin Montagu
, and the Viceroy
, Lord Chelmsford
. The Act covered ten years, from 1919 to 1929. This retraction of British imperialism was a result of India's enthusiastic participation in World War I
The Act provided a dual form of government (a "dyarchy
") for the major provinces. In each such province, control of some areas of government, the "transferred list", were given to a Government
answerable to the Provincial Council. The 'transferred list' included Agriculture, supervision of local government, Health and Education. The Provincial Councils were enlarged.
At the same time, all other areas of government (the 'reserved list') remained under the control of the Viceroy. The 'reserved list' included Defence (the military), Foreign Affairs, and Communications.
The Imperial Legislative Council
was enlarged and reformed. It became a bicameral
legislature for all India. The lower house was the Legislative Assembly
of 144 members, of which 104 were elected and 40 were nominated and tenure of three years. The upper house was the Council of States
consisting of 34 elected and 26 nominated members and tenure of five years.
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