Governorate of Livonia

Governorate Of Livonia

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Governorate of Livonia

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The Governorate of Livonia (; ; , ) or Livland Governorate, also known as the Government of Livonia or Province of Livonia, was one of the Baltic governorates of the Russian Empire, now divided between the Republic of Latvia and the Republic of Estonia.

It was originally called the Riga Governorate () after the city of Riga, the capital of Livonia. It was created out of Swedish Livonia, territories conquered from Sweden in the Great Northern War. Livonia had capitulated in 1710 and was formally ceded to Russia in the Treaty of Nystad in 1721. During subsequent administrative reordering, the governorate was renamed in 1796 into the Governorate of Livonia.

Until the late 19th century the governorate was not ruled by Russia but was administered independently by the local Baltic German nobility through a feudal Regional Council (). After the Russian February Revolution in 1917, the northern part of the Governorate of Livonia was combined with the Governorate of Estonia to form a new Autonomous Governorate of Estonia.

The Autonomous Governorate of Estonia issued the Estonian Declaration of Independence on February 24, 1918, one day before it was occupied by German troops during World War I. With the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk on March 3, 1918, Bolshevist Russia accepted the loss of the Livland Governorate and by agreements concluded in Berlin on August 27, 1918, the Autonomous Governorate of Estonia and the Governorate of Livonia were...
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