Gremlin (protein)

Gremlin (Protein)

Gremlin (protein)

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Gremlin is an inhibitor in the TGF beta signaling pathway.

Gremlin, also known as Drm, is a highly conserved 20.7-kDa, 184 amino acid glycoprotein part of the DAN family and is a cysteine knot-secreted protein.Gazzero E, Pereira RC, Jorgetti V, Olson S, Economides AN, Canalis E (2005). "Skeletal overexpression of gremlin impairs bone formation and causes osteopenia". Endocrinology 142(2):655-665.Stabile H, Mitola S, Moroni E, Belleri M, Nicoli S, Coltrini D, Peri F, Pessi A, Orsatti L, Talamo F (2007). Blood 109(5):1834-1840.Namkoong H, Shin SM, Kim HK, Ha S, Cho GW, Hur SY, Kim TE, Kim JW (2006). "The bone morphognentic protein antagonist gremlin 1 is overespressed in human cancers and interacts with YWAHAH protein". BMC cancer 6:74.

Gremlin 1 (grem 1) is known for its antagonistic reaction with bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) in the TGF beta signaling pathway. Grem 1 inhibits BMP-2, -4, and -7. Inhibition by grem 1 of BMPs in mice allow the expression of fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) 4 and 8 and Sonic hedgehog (SHH) which are necessary for proper limb development.Gazzero E, Pereira RC, Jorgetti V, Olson S, Economides AN, Canalis E (2005). "Skeletal overexpression of gremlin impairs bone formation and causes osteopenia".......
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