The Habsburg Monarchy
(or Habsburg Empire
) covered the territories ruled by the junior Austrian
branch of the House of Habsburg
(1278–1780), and then by the successor House of Habsburg-Lorraine
(from 1780), between 1526 and 1867/1918. The Imperial capital was Vienna
, except from 1583 to 1611, when it was moved to Prague
. From 1804 to 1867 the Habsburgs ruled the "Austrian Empire"
and from 1867 to 1918 "Austria-Hungary"
The head of the House of Habsburg was usually also the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire
from 1440 until its dissolution in 1806
. However, the two entities should not be considered coterminous
, as the Habsburg Empire covered many lands beyond the Holy Roman Empire, and not all of the Holy Roman Empire was de facto
under direct Habsburg control at any given time. In some contexts, the term "Habsburg Empire" might also refer to extended Habsburg family possessions once ruled solely by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
, or to the Spanish Empire
ruled by the senior Spanish branch
of the house.
The Habsburg family originated with the Habsburg Castle
in modern Switzerland
and after 1278 came to rule in Austria
(the Habsburg Hereditary Lands
). The Habsburg family grew to European prominence with the marriage and adoption treaty by Emperor Maximilian I
at the First Congress of Vienna
in 1515, and the subsequent death of adopted Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia
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