Fulmer was a member of the South Carolina House of Representatives 1917-1920. He was elected as a Democrat to the Sixty-seventh and to the eleven succeeding Congresses and served from March 4, 1921, until his death. While in Congress, he served as chairman, Committee on Agriculture (Seventy-sixth through Seventy-eighth Congresses). He had been nominated for re-election to the Seventy-ninth Congress before dying in Washington, D.C., October 19, 1944. He was buried in Memorial Park Cemetery, Orangeburg, South Carolina.