Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster

Henry Of Grosmont, 1st Duke Of Lancaster

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Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster

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Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster, 4th Earl of Leicester and Lancaster, KG (c. 1310 – 23 March 1361), also Earl of Derby, was a member of the English nobility in the 14th century, and a prominent English diplomat, politician, and soldier. The son and heir of Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster and Maud Chaworth, he became one of Edward III's most trusted captains in the early phases of the Hundred Years' War, and distinguished himself with victory in the Battle of Auberoche. He was a founding member and the second Knight of the Order of the Garter in 1348, and in 1351 was promoted to the title of duke. Grosmont was also the author of the book Livre de seyntz medicines; a highly personal devotional treatise. He is remembered as one of the founders and early patrons of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, which was established by two of the guilds of the town in 1352.

Family background and early life

Grosmont's uncle, Thomas of Lancaster, was the son and heir of Edward I's brother Edmund Crouchback. Through his inheritance and a fortunate marriage, Thomas became the wealthiest peer in England, but constant quarrels with King Edward II led to his execution in 1322. Having no heir, Thomas's possessions and titles went to his younger brother Henry – Grosmont's father. Earl Henry of Lancaster assented to the deposition of Edward II in 1327, but did not long stay in favour with the regency...
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