For all intents and purposes, the history of modern Spain
began with the death of dictator Francisco Franco
on the 20 November 1975, the accession of King Juan Carlos I
to the throne and the establishment of the parliamentary monarchy
. In 1978, the current Spanish Constitution of 1978
was signed and the status of Spain's Autonomous Regions was defined.
Road to elections (1975-1977)
In the uncertainty after Franco's death, the political situation could have taken one of three turns:
- Continuity of the previous, fascist regime. This idea was backed by Franco's government officials, (the "bunker"), high ranking military officers and numerous oligarchs and falangists.
- A complete overhaul of the previous system. Sectors of the opposition who supported this move assembled as the Junta Democráctica. However, fearing a reaction from the military, other members of the opposition preferred concessions with the previous regime, thus creating the Plataforma de Convergencia Democrática.
- A gradual reform of the previous system and the introduction of a constitutional monarchy. This idea was championed by the King, who had a minority of followers.
In his coronation speech, the King had opened the possibility for reform along the lines of constitutional monarchy
. However, for this to be possible, high-ranking officials from the previous regime had to be ejected from power.
The first act the King did was to name Torcuato Fernández Miranda
, his old teacher, as the President... Read More